Fatigue – Other Resources
Fatigue Risk Assessment Methodologies, by Cpt. Kristjof Tritschler
The Fatigue Factor Assessment and Mitigation Table is proposed as a fatigue-specific risk assessment methodology for a particular duty or work pattern. This methodology is based on internal scientific studies, relevant scientific literature, internal surveys and FRMS experience. The methodology starts by identifying the root causes of fatigue and provides effective mitigation measures.
Includes performance-based regulatory approach, FRMS White Paper of 2013, safety performance indicators, implementation guideline for operators.
The FRMS Forum has been created by the international aviation industry to help member organisations with their approach to introduce a Fatigue Risk Management System into their airlines. They provide free access to resources including: presentations, templates, case studies, notes, regulations and guidance documents.
New Zealand Agricultural Aviation Association
This example is a working document used in the helicopter and agricultural aviation sectors. If submitted as part of an application for certification of an aviation operation, it would need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis by the CAA .
NPA No. 25/2014 CAR PART IV CAR-OPS1 - Commercial & Private Air Transport (Aeroplanes) The GCAA has recently conducted a review of CAR-OPS 1 Regulation on the basis of ICAO Annex 6 Part 1 SARPS, Alignment with EASA and international standard practices. See in particular subpart Q and note on page 290: unless otherwise notified, this regulator uses CAA UK CAP 371 as a basis for UAE regulatory consideration of operator fatigue management schemes. Some of the material in subpart Q comes directly from the ICAO guidance material.
Aircraft Operations - Air Operator Certificate Requirements (Issue 3, Rev 27, 09 Feb 2015) Refer to Appendix C – "Fatigue Risk Management for Flight Crew and Cabin Crew"
Hong Kong CAD
Flight Standards - CAD 371 - The Avoidance of Fatigue in Aircrews (2nd Edition, May 2010) Standard provisions on which Hong Kong operators’ “Approved Flight Time Limitation Schemes” are to be based (applicable to cabin crew as well).
CAP 371: Avoidance of Fatigue in Air Crews (4th Edition, 16 Jan 2004) Guide to the requirements of the regulations that set a work pattern for flight crews and cabin staff designed to prevent the onset of fatigue, and yet allow an operator to pursue business interests.
EASA Flight Time Limitations (FTL) Information page to provide UK operators with the regulations, guidance, Q&A, and audit requirements for the new EASA FTL regulations. The ‘More information’ tab provides further guidance materials and supporting documents, including presentations that were made to industry during seminars and workshops.
CAP 716: Aviation Maintenance Human Factors (EASA Part-145) Guidance Material on the UK CAA Interpretation of Part-145 Human Factors and Error Management Requirements. Refer Appendix P Working Time Requirements and Guidelines that includes recommendations for “good practice” from the report CAAP 2002/06 "Work Hours of Aircraft Maintenance Personnel" (March 2003). This work was carried out by Professor Simon Folkard, on behalf of the CAA.
Fatigue Management 2015 Scientific Support Brief (PDF) A review of the case for change: Scientific support for CAO 48.1 Instrument 2013
Fatigue Management (web site)
Civil Aviation Order 48.1 Instrument 2013 Regulation that outlines the requirements for acclimatisation and fatigue management for flight crew members.
Civil Aviation Advisory Publications - CAAPs See CAAP 48-01 Fatigue Management for Flight Crew Members Guidance on meeting the AOC holder and flight crew member (FCM) obligations in relation to fatigue management, required under CAO 48.1.
International Law, Legislation, and Regulations Division - Recent Interpretation Postings Orellana - (2015) Legal Interpretation Legal interpretation of 14 CFR Part 135 and rest rules, in particular the distinction between 'on call' and rest periods.
Documents Associated with 14 CFR Part 117 Issued by the FAA in connection with the flight, duty, and rest regulations codified at 14 CFR Part 117.
Advisory Circulars & Guides Associated with 14 CFR Part 117 Notice of final rule - Amendments to 14 CFR Parts 117, 119, and 121, amending the existing flight, duty and rest regulations applicable to certificate holders and their flight crew members.
Aerospace Medicine Technical Reports: 07/21 Flight Attendant Fatigue The report contains a literature review on fatigue as potentially experienced by flight attendants, an evaluation of currently used (actual vs scheduled) flight attendant duty schedules, and a comparison of these schedules to the current CFRs. The report additionally reviews fatigue-related incident/accident information from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and the NTSB database.
Fatigue Risk Management Fatigue information that applies to aviation maintenance personnel. This is the result of a multi-disciplinary expert work group, which investigated the issues associated with human fatigue in maintenance and the practical science-based methods that can be used to manage fatigue risk.
Comment Response Documents (CRDs) See CRD 2010-14 Scientific assessment in response to Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) 2010-14 on flight and duty time limitations and rest requirements for commercial air transport (CAT) with aeroplanes (pages 105 to 195).
Insights into how fatigue can contribute to incidents and accidents, and lessons to be learned from these events.
NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)
ASRS’s monthly safety newsletter CALLBACK presents excerpts from de-identified ASRS reports with supporting commentary in a “lessons learned” format. It also contains ASRS research studies and related aviation safety information. Issue 438 has several fatigue case studies.
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
The NTSB’s Most Wanted List represents the NTSB's advocacy priorities. It is designed to increase awareness of, and support for, the most critical changes needed to reduce transportation accidents and save lives. The 2016 list features the reduction of fatigue-related accidents as a top priority.
Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB)
Tail rotor strike of slung load involving a Eurocopter AS 350, VH-NPS - Glenbrook, NSW on 19 Dec 2015
Flight below minimum altitude involving an Avro 146, VH-NJW - near Granny Smith Airport, Western Australia on 23 Jun 2015
Landing gear overspeed involving a Saab 340B, VH-ZRJ - near Sydney Airport, NSW on 04 Dec 2014
Loss of separation assurance involving Airbus A330, 9V-STQ and Airbus A320, VH-VFH - near Tindal, NT on 24 Apr 2014
Pilot incapacitation involving a Cessna 210, VH-JMG - 56 km north of Sydney Airport, NSW, 01 Sep 2013
Descent below approach path involving Boeing 777, VH-VPF - Melbourne Airport, Victoria on 15 Aug 2013
Navigation event involving Embraer E170 VH-ANO - 232 km north-west of McArthur River Mine, NT on 10 Jan 2013
Icelandic Transportation Safety Board (ITSB)
Runway excursion during flight testing involving a Sukhoi RRJ-95B - Keflavik Airport, Iceland on 21 July 2013.
The Final Report (PDF 2.39 MB) determined the most probable cause of the accident to be flight crew fatigue; the crew exceeded flight duty times and suffered from the effects of prolonged wakefulness.
Jeppesen is starting a new industry-wide fatigue data collection targeting crew with larger circadian disruptions. This new research project, focused on acclimatisation, is starting in April 2016 with data collection performed during August and September.
We are now looking for organisations and individuals that regularly operate across larger time-zone transitions with long periods out-of-base.
If you are interested in participating, please consider registering through this link and we will provide further details on methodology, tools, crew recruitment, and e-learning material. Participation is free of charge. All data is kept confidential and fed back to participating organisations.
A workshop was held in June 2006, bringing together experts from industry and academia, as well as CAA personnel. The workshop’s recommendations are contained in the Workshop Notes. Progress on the recommendations and meeting updates were tracked in an Action Register.