Contents of this page:
SIGMET(Graphical SIGMET Monitor (GSM)) (2.1 MB)
Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAA)
Volcanic Ash Graphic (VAG)
Hi-Level SIGWX Chart
Medium (Mid) SIGWX Chart
Wind and Temperature (WIND/TEMP) Chart for FL340
Satellite Picture (SATPX)
RAPIC (Weather Radar Picture) - New Plymouth Radar
TAF NZRO 192053Z 1921/2012 01015G28KT 30KM -SHRA SCT020 BKN035 TEMPO 2001/2004
Decode of Domestic TAF
|TAF NZRO 192053Z 1921/2012||Aerodrome forecast for Rotorua, issued at 2053 UTC on the 19th of the month, valid from 2100 UTC on the 19th to 1200 UTC on the 20th of the month.|
|01015G28KT||Surface wind: 010 degrees true, 15 knots gusts 28 knots.|
|30KM||Visibility: 30 kilometres.|
|-SHRA||Weather: Light shower of rain.|
|SCT020 BKN035||Cloud: scattered cloud (3-4 oktas) with a base at 2000 feet above aerodrome level, broken cloud (5-7 oktas) with a base at 3500 feet above aerodrome level|
|TEMPO 2001/2004 5000 +TSRAGS
|Temporarily, between 0100 and 0400 UTC on the 20th of the month, visibility will reduce to 5000 metres in heavy thunderstorms with rain and small hail pellets, and broken cumulonimbus cloud at 1000 feet above aerodrome level|
|2000FT WIND 36020KT||Wind at 2000 feet 360 degrees true at 20 knots.|
|QNH MNM 1015 MAX 1024||The minimum and maximum QNH during the forecast period is expected to be 1015 hPa and 1024 hPa respectively.|
TAF NZCH 102305Z 1100/1200 20008KT 9999 FEW012 SCT017
Decode of International TAF
|TAF NZCH 102305Z 1100/1200||Aerodrome forecast for Christchurch International Airport, issued at 2305 UTC on the 10th of the month, valid from 0000 UTC on the 11th of the month to 0000 UTC on the 12th of the month.|
|20008KT||Surface wind: 200 degrees true, 8 knots.|
|9999||Visibility: 10 kilometres or more.|
|FEW012 SCT017||Cloud: few cloud (1-2 oktas) with a base at 1200 feet above aerodrome level, scattered cloud (3-4 oktas) with a base at 1700 feet above aerodrome level.|
|TEMPO 1100/1108 BKN012||Temporarily, between 0000 and 0800 UTC on the 11th, broken cloud (5-7 oktas) with a base of 1200 feet above aerodrome level.|
|BECMG 1108/1110 06010KT||Becoming, between 0800 and 1000 UTC on the 11th, wind 060 degrees true, 10 knots.|
|TEMPO 1108/1121 6000DZ BKN012||Temporarily, between 0800 and 2100 UTC on the 11th, visibility will reduce to 6000 metres in drizzle, with broken cloud (5-7 oktas) at 1200 feet above aerodrome level.|
NZWP, NZOH, NZMF only
METAR MZMF 230200Z 33006KT 20KM -SHRA FEW015 SCT040 BKN050 10/08 Q1008
Decode of METAR
|METAR NZMF 230200Z||Routine Meteorological Aerodrome Report for Milford aerodrome, at 0200 UTC on the 23rd of the month.|
|33006KT||Surface wind: 330 degrees true, 6 knots.|
|20KM||Visibility: 20 kilometres.|
|-SHAR||Present weather: light shower of rain|
|Cloud: Few cloud (1-2 oktas) with a base of 1500 feet above aerodrome level, scattered cloud (3-4 oktas) with a base of 4000 feet above aerodrome level and broken cloud (5-7 oktas) with a base of 5,000 feet above aerodrome level|
|10/08||Temperature: 10 degrees Celsius; Dew Point: 8 degrees Celsius|
|Q1008||QNH: 1008 hectoPascals (hPa)|
SPECI NZWP 010000Z 03022G34KT 010V080 2000 –DZRA FEW003 BKN006
Decode of SPECI
|SPECI NZWP||Special Meteorological Aerodrome Report for Whenuapai aerodrome, issued at 0000 UTC on the 1st of the month.|
|03022G34KT 010V080||Surface wind: 030 degrees true, 22 knots gusting to 34 knots. Wind direction varying between 010 degrees true and 080 degrees true.|
|2000||Visibility: 2000 metres.|
|-DZRA||Weather: Light drizzle and rain at the time of the observation.|
|FEW003 BKN006||Cloud: Few cloud (1-2 oktas) with a base at 300 feet above aerodrome level, and broken cloud (5–7 oktas) with a base at 600 feet above aerodrome level.|
|22/21||Temperature: 22 degrees Celsius Dew Point: 21 degrees Celsius.|
|Q0997||QNH: 997 hectoPascals.|
|RERA||Recent weather: Moderate or heavy rain has been observed at the aerodrome since the last routine report.|
Example 1 - All aerodromes except NZAA, NZWN, NZCH, NZMF
METAR NZNS 011400Z AUTO 35004KT 310V010 29KM -SHRA OVC048/// 19/16 Q1021
Decode of METAR AUTO
|METAR NZNS 011400Z AUTO||Routine Meteorological Aerodrome Report for Nelson aerodrome, issued at 1400 UTC on the 1st of the month. Observation made by an Automatic Weather Station.|
|35004KT 310V010||Surface wind: 350 degrees true, 4 knots. Wind direction varying between 310 degrees true and 010 degrees true.|
|29KM||Visibility: 29 kilometres.|
|-SHRA||Weather: Light shower of rain.|
|OVC048///||Cloud: Overcast cloud (8 oktas) with a base at 4800 feet above aerodrome. The three strokes (///) indicate that no TCU or CB cloud could be identified by the Automatic Weather Station.|
|19/16||Temperature: 19 degrees Celsius, Dew Point: 16 degrees Celsius.|
|Q1021||QNH: 1021 hectoPascals.|
Notes about METAR AUTO Reports at aerodromes other than NZAA, NZWN, NZCH, NZMF:
Example 2 - NZAA, NZWN, NZCH only
METAR NZWN 162000Z AUTO 36016KT 9999 // BKN025/// 16/12 Q1028 NOSIG RMK KAUKAU 36033KT
Decode of METAR AUTO
|METAR NZWN 162000Z AUTO||Routine Meteorological Aerodrome Report for Wellington aerodrome, at 2000 UTC on the 16th of the month. Observation made by an Automatic Weather Station|
|36016KT||Surface wind: 360 degrees true, 16 knots|
|9999||Visibility: 10 kilometers or more|
Present weather: the present weather cannot be observed due to a temporary failure of the system/sensor.
Cloud: Broken cloud (5-7 oktas) with a base of 2500 feet above aerodrome level. The three strokes (///) indicate that no TCU or CB could be identified by the AWS
Temperature: 16 degrees Celsius; Dew point: 12 degrees Celsius
QNH: 1028 hectoPascals (hPa)
TREND forecast: No significant change to the reported conditions for the next two hours (ie until 2200 UTC on the 16th of the month)
|RMK KAUKAU 36033KT||
Wind at Mt Kaukau: 360 degrees true, 33 knots
Example 3 - NZAA, NZWN, NZCH only
METAR NZAA 010000Z AUTO 03022G34KT 010V080 2000 R05/1300D -DZRA FEW003/// BKN006/// 22/21 Q0997 RERA WS R05 TEMPO 6000 RA
Decode of METAR AUTO
|METAR NZAA 010000Z AUTO||
Routine Meteorological Aerodrome Report for Auckland aerodrome, at 0000 UTC on the 1st of the month. Observation made by an Automatic Weather Station
Surface wind: 030 degrees true, 22 knots, gusts to 34 knots
Surface wind direction: varying between 010 degrees true and 080 degrees true
Visibility: 2000 metres
Runway visual range: 1300 metres for the touchdown zone of runway 05, with a downward tendency observed
Present weather: light drizzle and rain
Cloud: Few cloud (1-2 oktas) with a base of 300 feet above aerodrome level, broken cloud (5-7 oktas) with a base of 600 feet above aerodrome level. The three strokes (///) at the end of both cloud groups indicate that no TCU or CB could be identified by the AWS
Temperature: 22 degrees Celsius; Dew point: 21 degrees Celsius
QNH: 997 hectoPascals (hPa)
Recent weather: Moderate or heavy rain has been observed at the aerodrome since the last routine report.
Windshear: windshear reported by pilots or the control tower along the takeoff and/or approach path to runway 05 between runway level and 1600 feet AGL
|TEMPO 6000 RA||
TREND forecast: temporary fluctuations in the visibility and weather (6000 metres and rain) are expected to occur, and will last for a period of less than one hour in each instance. Such fluctuations are expected to occur during the next 2 hours, i.e., between 0000 and 0200 UTC, and to take place sufficiently infrequently for the prevailing conditions to remain those reported in the METAR AUTO
Notes about METAR AUTO Reports - NZAA, NZWN, NZCH only:
FANZ67 NZKL 282227
Decode of ARFOR
|FANZ67||This is a reference (or bulletin) number for use by the issuing office.|
ARFOR ST VALID
2200 TO 1100 UTC
|ARFOR for forecast area Straits (ST), issued by the Kelburn Office (NZKL) at 2227 UTC on the 28th of the month, and valid from 2200 UTC on the 28th until 1100 UTC on the 29th of the month.|
5000 08010 PS08
7000 08010 PS05
10000 10010 ZERO
|1000 ft wind: 150 degrees true, 15 knots.
3000 ft wind: 140 degrees true, 10 knots.
5000 ft wind: 080 degrees true, 10 knots, temperature plus 8 degrees Celsius
7000 ft wind: 080 degrees true, 10 knots, temperature plus 5 degrees Celsius
10,000 ft wind: 100 degrees true, 10 knots, temperature zero degrees Celsius
Note: Temperatures are not provided for 1000 and 3000 feet
|FZL: 10000||Freezing level 10,000 ft above mean sea level|
|VIS: 15KM REDUCING TO
4000M IN SHRA
|Visibility 15 kilometres, but reducing to 4000 metres in rain showers.|
|CLD: AREAS BKN ST 400
ESPECIALLY VC COOK STRAIT BKN CUSC 4500 TOPS 9000
|Areas of broken (4-5 oktas) stratus cloud, base 400 feet above mean sea level, especially in the vicinity of Cook Strait. Broken (5-7 oktas) cumulus and stratocumulus cloud, base 4500 feet and tops 9000 feet above mean sea level.|
|WX: OCNL SHRA, MAINLY VC COOK STRAIT, EASING ABT
WELLINGTON LATE AFTERNOON
|Occasional rain showers, mainly in the vicinity of Cook Strait, and easing about Wellington in the late afternoon.|
|ICE : NIL||Nil icing expected|
|TURB: NIL||Nil turbulence expected|
WSNZ21 NZKL 140010 NZZC SIGMET 1 VALID 140010/140410 NZKL-
Decode of Sigmet
|WSNZ21 NZKL 140010||WMO meteorological message header (WSNZ21), issued by the Wellington Meteorological Watch Office (NZKL) at 0010UTC on the 14th day of the month. The message header (WSNZ21)can be ignored by pilots.|
|NZZC||Issued for the Christchurch Flight Information Centre.|
|SIGMET||SIGnificant METeorological information for pilots (a message containing information about hazardous weather)|
|1||The 1st SIGMET issued on the 14th day of the month since 0000UTC.|
|VALID 140010/140410||Valid between 0010 and 0410 UTC on the 14th day of the month.|
|NZKL-||Issued by the Wellington Meteorological Watch Office (MWO), Kelburn, Wellington. The "-" sign indicates the end of the 1st line of the message|
|NZZC NEW ZEALAND FIR||Issued for the New Zealand Flight Information Region. (NZZC)|
|SEV ICE FCST N OF S3958 E17502 AND S OF S3516 E17355 FL120/250 MOV S 20KT NC||Severe icing is forecast north of latitude 39 degrees 58 minutes south, 175 degrees 02 minutes east (ie Wanganui – NZWU) and south of latitude 35 degrees 16 minutes south, longitude 173 degrees 55 east (ie Kerikeri – NZKK), between flight level 120 and flight level 250, moving south at 20 knots.|
|NC||Intensity not expected to change (NC = no change)|
|FVPS01 NZKL 182220
AVIATION COLOUR CODE:
OBS VA DTG:
OBS VA CLD:
FCST VA CLD+6HR:
FCST VA CLD+12HR:
FCST VA CLD+18HR:
HUNGA TONGA-HUNGA HA'APAI 403-05
OBS FM TONGA MET
PLUME OBS TO FL170
SFC/FL170 S2030 W17540 - S2000 W17520 - S1930 W17530 - S2020 W17520
19/0300Z SFC/FL170 S2030 W17540 - S1920 W17520 - S1930 W17400 - S2030 W17400 FL170/600 NO VA EXP
19/0900Z SFC/FL170 S2030 W17540 - S1900 W17400 - S1900 W17300 - S2020 W17300 FL170/600 NO VA EXP
19/1500Z SFC/FL170 S2030 W17540 - S1840 W17400 - S1820 W17140 - S2100 W17140 FL170/600 NO VA EXP
T+0 CONFIDENCE LOW1
NO LATER THAN 20090319/0420Z
1 Also refer to Additional Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAA) Terminology in the Meteorological Terminology section of How to Interpret Aviation Weather Information.
Decode of Volcanic Ash Advisory (VAA)
|FVPS01 NZKL 182220||WMO meteorological message header (FVPS01), issued by the Wellington Aviation Weather Centre (NZKL) at 2220 UTC on the 18th day of the month. The message header (FVPS01 ) can be ignored by pilots.|
|VA ADVISORY||Type of message (Volcanic Ash Advisory).|
|DTG: 20090318/2220Z||DTG (Date, time group): Date and time of origin of the message (yyyymmdd/nnnnZ) (2009, March, 18th day, 2200 UTC).|
|VAAC: WELLINGTON||Name of the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (Wellington) issuing the advisory.|
|VOLCANO: HUNGA TONGA-HUNGA HA'APAI 403-05||Name of the volcano (Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai) and its international number (403-05).|
|PSN: S2034 W17523||Location of the volcano in degrees and minutes (South 20 deg 34 min, West 175 deg 23 min).|
|AREA: TONGA||Country, region or area in which the volcano is located (Tonga).|
|SUMMIT ELEV: 149M||Summit elevation of the volcano (149 metres).|
|ADVISORY NR: 2009/5||Advisory (or reference) number concerning the volcano. 2009/5 indicates it is the fifth advisory to be issued for the current activity of this volcano in 2009.|
|INFO SOURCE: OBS FM TONGA MET||Source of the information about this volcano (the observation was received from the Tonga meteorological office).|
|AVIATION COLOUR CODE: RED||Colour code is RED. This means that an eruption has occurred or is expected to be imminent with significant emission of ash into the atmosphere.|
|ERUPTION DETAILS: PLUME OBS TO FL170||Details of the eruption (a plume observed to FL170)|
|OBS VA DTG: 18/2100Z||Date and Time of the eruption (18th day of the month at 2100 UTC)|
|OBS VA CLD: SFC/FL170 S2030 W17540 - S2000 W17520 - S1930 W17530 - S2020 W17520||Horizontal and vertical extent of the observed ash (as at 18/2100Z). Vertical extent - between the surface and FL170. Horizontal extent - the area is defined by a series of latitude and longitude points (degree and minutes).|
|FCST VA CLD+6HR: 19/0300Z SFC/FL170 S2030 W17540 - S1920 W17520 - S1930 W17400 - S2030 W17400 FL170/600 NO VA EXP||A 6 hr forecast of the position of the ash cloud (vertical and horizontal extent) with the date and time of the forecast indicated (19th day of the month at 0300 UTC). Vertical extent – surface to FL170. Horizontal extent – the area is defined by a series of latitude and longitude points (degrees and minutes).
No ash is expected between FL170 and FL600.
|FCST VA CLD+12HR: 19/0900Z SFC/FL170 S2030 W17540 - S1900 W17400 - S1900 W17300 - S2020 W17300 FL170/600 NO VA EXP||A 12 hr forecast of the position of the ash cloud (vertical and horizontal extent) with the date and time of the forecast indicated (19th day of the month at 0300 UTC). Vertical extent – surface to FL170. Horizontal extent – the area is defined by a series of latitude and longitude points (degrees and minutes).
No ash is expected between FL170 and FL600.
|FCST VA CLD+18HR: 19/1500Z SFC/FL170 S2030 W17540 - S1840 W17400 - S1820 W17140 - S2100 W17140 FL170/600 NO VA EXP||An 18 hr forecast of the position of the ash cloud (vertical and horizontal extent) with the date and time of the forecast indicated (19th day of the month at 1500 UTC). Vertical extent – surface to FL170. Horizontal extent – the area is defined by a series of latitude and longitude points (degrees and minutes).
No ash is expected between FL170 and FL600.
|RMK: T+0 CONFIDENCE LOW||T+0 CONFIDENCE LOW indicates weak observational evidence of the volcanic ash and/or low confidence in model(s) prediction at the time of the observation, ie, at T+0 which was 18/2100Z (18th day of the month, 2100 UTC).|
|NXT ADVISORY: NO LATER THAN 20090319/0420Z||The next advisory will be issued no later than 0420 UTC, 19 March 2009 (yyyymmdd/nnnnZ)|
See larger (100 KB)
Explanation of a VAG
A VAG is presented as a 4-panel map displaying volcanic ash observed from an aircraft, satellite picture or other means, as well as the forecast location of the ash at 6, 12 and 18 hours after the time the ash was observed. The ash is displayed in areas (polygons) for up to four different layers, with the top and bottom of each layer included, eg, SFC/FL100 indicates the layer extends from the surface to FL100. The boundary of the first polygon is depicted with solid lines, the next highest layer by dashed lines, the third layer by dotted lines and the fourth layer by combined dashed and dotted lines.
|Top left panel
Depicts observed (OBS) ash at the time and date displayed, eg, 14/1930Z OBS means the ash displayed was observed at 1930 UTC on the 14th day of the month.
|Top right panel
Depicts the expected (forecast) location of the ash 6 hours after the time of the observed ash, eg, 15/0130Z FCST means the forecast location of the ash at 0130 UTC on the 15th day of the month.
|Bottom left panel
Depicts the expected (forecast) location of the ash 12 hours after the time of the observed ash, eg, 15/0730Z FCST means the forecast location of the ash at 0730 UTC on the 15th day of the month.
|Bottom right panel
Depicts the expected (forecast) location of the ash 18 hours after the time of the observed ash, eg, 15/1330Z FCST means the forecast location of the ash at 1330 UTC on the 15th day of the month.
The dot at the bottom of the volcano symbol represents the position of the volcano producing the ash.
The legend box at the bottom of the 4-panel map includes the same information as that provided in the associated VAA. In the example above, this includes the following information.
DTG (Date Time Group): 20141214/1949Z – the VAG was issued at 1949 UTC on 14 December 2014
VAAC: Wellington – the Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) issued the VAG
VOLCANO: White Island 241010 – White Island volcano with the number (241010) assigned to the volcano under the Global Volcanism Program.
PSN: S3731 E17711 – the geographic position of the volcano (latitude 37 degrees 31 minutes south and longitude 177 degrees 11 minutes east).
AREA: NEW ZEALAND – the volcano is located in New Zealand
SUMMIT ELEV: 321m – the summit of the volcano is 321 metres above sea level.
ADVISORY NR: 2014/1 – advisory number 1 for 2014.
INFO SOURCE: PIREP – the ash was reported in a pilot report (PIREP)
AVIATION COLOUR CODE: RED – this is the aviation colour code assigned by GNS (representing the New Zealand volcano observatory).
ERUPTION DETAILS: ERUPTION AT 20141214/1840Z – the eruption occurred at
1840 UTC on 14 December 2014.
RMK: WINDS SW EXPECTED TO TEND W AND INCREASE 5-10KT NEXT 6-12HRS – Southwesterly winds are expected to tend westerly and increase by 5-10 knots during the next 6 to 12 hours.
NXT ADVISORY: NO LATER THAN 20141215/0149Z – the next advisory will be issued no later than 0149 UTC on 15 December 2014.
|ROFOR VALID 102000/110600|
Decode of ROFOR
|ROFOR VALID 102000/110600||Route forecast valid from 2000 UTC on the 10th day of the month until 0600 UTC on the 11th day of the month.|
|ROUTE NZRO/NZCH||Route: Rotorua to Christchurch|
|ZONE||This column lists the route (NZRO/NZCH) from waypoint to waypoint, eg, NZRO/TM is for that part of the route from Rotorua to waypoint TM.|
|FL100 FL180 FL300 FL340 FL360||These columns list the forecast winds and temperatures at FL100, FL180, FL300, FL340 and FL360, for each of the zones shown in the “Zone” column.|
|23006M03||The forecast winds and temperatures are shown in the following format:
|Note: The winds and temperatures represent the average values for the zone concerned, eg, for the zone NZRO/TM, the winds and temperatures are the average between NZRO and TM. They are not the winds at NZRO and TM.|